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AFOX AP35-A1 Driver

Both simple and complex retinogeniculate synapses were observed in these data sets and AFOX AP35-A1 in the complex synapses appeared to originate from distinct retinal axons Figure S1. Next, we quantified different features of simple and complex retinogeniculate synapses.

AFOX AP35-A1 found that retinal boutons participating in complex retinogeniculate synapses were smaller than their counterparts in simple synapses Figure S2. These differences were not merely the result of terminals being smaller in size, since there was a statistically significant difference in the active zone: While these results were expected AFOX AP35-A1 on previous studies Lund and Cunningham, ; Bickford et al.

In most cases, we observed terminal boutons originating from three to eight different retinal axons in these reconstructions Figures 4A—4H ; however, in a few cases we observed clusters that contained boutons from more than a dozen different retinal axons Figures 4I—4O. While results from single retinal axon AFOX AP35-A1 studies could be interpreted to indicate that these clustered AFOX AP35-A1 originated from distant branches of one or two retinal axons Hong et al.

The retinogeniculate synapse has emerged as one of the most widely used models for studying activity-dependent refinement in the developing brain. In mice, physiological studies have suggested that as retinal axons initially innervate dLGN as many as 20 distinct RGC inputs converge onto the dendrites of relay cells, but, over the first few weeks of postnatal development, most supernumerary retinal inputs AFOX AP35-A1 eliminated so that each relay cell receives input from just one to two RGCs in the adult animal Chen and Regehr AFOX AP35-A1 Hong and Chen A concept so well entrenched, it has made its way AFOX AP35-A1 widely used textbooks Squire et al.

Here, we applied two relatively novel technologies to examine the AFOX AP35-A1 of retinal terminals at retinogeniculate synapses. These results raise an obvious question, what is the actual number of RGCs that innervate each relay cell?

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Unfortunately, an exact number cannot be determined since the studies described here focused on small regions of retinal arbors or dendritic trees, limiting the ability to reconstruct every single axon that synapses onto a given AFOX AP35-A1 cell. That being said, for many relay cells the number of retinal inputs likely will approach or exceed a dozen.

Multiple Retinal Axons Converge onto Relay Cells in the Adult Mouse Thalamus

While this statement and the results demonstrated here contrasts the widely accepted concept of a near unitary matching of RGC to relay cell, these results are supported at least in part by previous studies that have suggested a modestly larger number of retinal inputs on relay cells than just AFOX AP35-A1 to two Cleland and Lee ; Usrey et al. We are therefore left pondering why anatomical and functional studies produce such AFOX AP35-A1 conclusions.

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Is this discrepancy a technical issue with the AFOX AP35-A1 applied? Certainly, this is a possibility, as all experimental approaches have shortcomings. Are these AFOX AP35-A1 synapses leaky, so that the release of glutamate from one terminal activates all of the postsynaptic receptors within this synaptic cluster?

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Certainly, the later is a possibility since the presence and consequence of synaptic spillover has been demonstrated in both simulations and with experimental approaches at complex retinogeniculate synapses Budisantoso et al. Do some classes of relay cells in mouse dLGN receive input AFOX AP35-A1 only one type of retinogeniculate synapse, so that some relay cells receive input from just one to two RGCs while other classes receive input from large numbers of AFOX AP35-A1

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This possibility is supported in part by a heroic study by Sherman and colleagues in which a single retinal axon was labeled with HRP and its connectivity AFOX AP35-A1 four LGN relay cells was examined with serial electron microscopy Hamos et al. Moreover, the morphology of retinal AFOX AP35-A1 generated by this single HRP-labeled axon differed between the cells, suggesting a role for the postsynaptic neuron in determining the architecture of the retinogeniculate synapse Hamos et al.

However, our reconstructions identified cases in which single relay cells were innervated by both simple and AFOX AP35-A1 retinogeniculate synapses, arguing against the AFOX AP35-A1 of different classes of relay cells receiving just one type of retinal synapse. The reduced number of active zones and dendritic protrusions in retinal boutons associated with complex retinogeniculate, shown by us here and by Budisantoso et al.

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Unfortunately, we do not know the answers to all of these questions yet, but one can certainly imagine a number of possibilities that AFOX AP35-A1 need to be addressed in future studies. Results from our studies also AFOX AP35-A1 interesting questions regarding how different classes of RGCs participate in retinal terminal clustering in dLGN. Only a single retinal axon AFOX AP35-A1 reconstructed that participated in both complex and simple type retinogeniculate synapses.

While this may reflect a sampling issue, it may also indicate that different classes of RGCs generate different types of retinogeniculate synapses.

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Just as different classes of retinal axons arborize in unique domains of dLGN Dhande and Huberman ; Hong and Chenit is tempting to speculate that some classes of retinal axons cluster their terminals AFOX AP35-A1 complex retinogeniculate synapses like observed in Hong et al. Finally, it is important to discuss an implication that these studies may have on using the AFOX AP35-A1 synapse as a model of activity-dependent refinement.

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AFOX AP35-A1 Many groups use this model synapse to explore the cellular and molecular underpinnings of activity-dependent refinement at brain AFOX AP35-A1 for examples, see Chen and Regehr, ; Hooks and Chen ; Hong et al. But, what if this is not the case?

What if retinal convergence persists at least anatomically in the mature visual system?

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